Mathematical Brain Teaser
What is the product of the following series: (x-a), (x-b),
Logic Brain Teaser
Six glasses are in a row. The first three are full of
juice; the second three are empty. By moving only one glass,
can you arrange them so empty and full glasses alternate?
Lateral Brain Teaser
A man rode into town on Monday. He stayed for three nights
and then left on Monday. How come?
Word Play Puzzles
The letters represent words that are somehow connected in a
You must identify the next letter in the sequence.
Clue: M T W T ?
Explanation: ..... Wednesday (W), Thursday (T),
Question: O T T F F S S E ?
Different words are used to describe well known proverbs
Puzzle: "Rap upon timber"
Solution: "Knock on wood."
Question: All articles that coruscate with resplendence are
not truly auriferous.
Each equation contains the initials of words that will make
the statement true. The statements are well-known facts from
the everyday world.
Identify the missing words that will make each statement true.
Equation: 1001 = A. N.
Solution: 1001 Arabian Nights
Question: 7 = W. of the A. W.
The following words are used in different orientations to
represent common phrases.
FLIGHTFLIGHT can be interpreted as 'Connecting Flights'
What unusual property do the words FLOUR, TERN, and
THIRSTY have in common?
What falls but never breaks?
Tests and games (Links to other sites)
Quiz Hub - Chemical Elements and Symbols Quiz
Your brain is like a car. A car needs gasoline, oil, brake fluid and
other materials to run properly. Your brain also needs special
materials to run properly: glucose, vitamins, minerals and other
essential chemicals. For example, the fuel (energy) for your brain
is glucose. You can get glucose by eating carbohydrates or other
foods that can be converted to glucose.
Your brain must manufacture the right proteins and fats to do things
such as grow new connections or add myelin, the fatty sheath to
axons. You do this by digesting proteins and fats in food and using
the pieces, that is, the amino acids and fatty acids, to make the
new brain proteins and fats. Without the correct amount and balance
of particular building blocks, your brain will not work properly.
Too little (deficiency) or too much (overabundance) of the necessary
nutrient can affect the nervous system.
Diet and the Neurotransmitters
Certain foods contain precursors (starting materials) for some
neurotransmitters. If a diet is deficient in certain precursors, the
brain will not be able to produce some neurotransmitters.
Neurological and mental disorders may occur when the balance of
neurotransmitters is upset. Examples of neurotransmitter precursors
Aspartic Acid: Used to make aspartate; found in peanuts,
potatoes, eggs and grains.
Choline: Used to make acetylcholine; found in eggs, liver
Glutamic Acid: Used to make glutamate; found in flour and
Phenylalanine: Used to make dopamine; found in beets,
soybeans, almonds, eggs, meat and grains.
Tryptophan: Used to make serotonin; found in eggs, meat,
skim milk, bananas, yogurt, milk, and cheese.
Tyrosine: Used to make norepinephrine; found in milk,
meat, fish and legumes.
Malnutrition and the Brain
Vitamin and mineral deficiencies can be caused by:
2. Poor diet
3. Poor absorption of vitamins and minerals
4. Damage to the digestive system
The brain of a human fetus grows rapidly from
the 10th to 18th week of pregnancy, so it is important for the
mother to eat nutritious foods during this time. The brain also
grows rapidly just before and for about 2 years after birth.
Malnutrition during these periods of rapid brain growth may have
devastating effects on the nervous system and can affect not only
neurons, but also glial cell development and growth. Effects on
glial cells may change myelin development especially because myelin
continues to form around axons for several years after birth.
Babies born to mothers who had poor diets may have some form of
mental retardation or behavioral problems. Also, children who do not
receive adequate nutrition in their first few years of life may
develop problems later. Often the effects of malnutrition and
environmental problems, such as emotional and physical abuse, can
combine to create behavioral problems. Therefore, the exact causes
of behavioral disorders are difficult to determine.
Some effects of malnutrition can be repaired by a proper diet,
so not all of the effects of poor diets are permanent. Researchers
believe that the timing of malnutrition is an important factor in
determining if problems will occur. This means that missing out on a
particular nutrient at the time when a part of the brain is growing
and needs that nutrient will cause a specific problem there.
Studying the Nutrition-Brain-Behavior Connection
The study of how nutrition affects the brain
and behavior is relatively new. Scientists have just begun to
understand how changes in particular nutrients alter the brain and
how these neural changes then affect intelligence, mood, and the way
people act. Experiments that investigate this
nutrition-brain-behavior interaction, particularly those that study
the effects of malnutrition, are difficult for several reasons:
1. There is a link between poor nutrition and environmental
factors. Therefore, changes in behavior may not be due to poor
nutrition only. Other factors such as education, social or family
problems may affect behavior.
2. It is difficult to alter only one substance in the human
diet. Therefore, it is difficult to determine if a particular
vitamin or mineral has a certain effect on behavior. For ethical
reasons, experiments in which a person is not allowed to eat a
particular nutrient cannot be done, so much of the data come from
animal experiments. Studies in humans are generally limited to
examining the effects of famine and starvation, situations where
many nutrients are missing.
3. People respond to different diets in
different ways. In other words, there is a large individual
variation in the body's response and need for different nutrients.
4. A change in diet may have a placebo effect. The placebo
effect occurs because a person thinks something will have an effect.
In other words, if a person thinks a change in diet will affect
behavior, it may actually affect behavior even if the nutrients are
not causing the change. Therefore, experiments must have a placebo
control and be performed in a double-blind manner where neither the
experimental subject nor the experimenter know who has received an
5. The definition of intelligence is controversial. For example,
some people do not believe that IQ tests accurately measure
intelligence so it is difficult to use an IQ test to claim that
intelligence has been affected by diet.
WARNING: Always consult with a health care professional before
starting a diet or nutritional supplement program, such as taking
high doses of vitamins or minerals. Small changes in diet can have
large effects on your health.
Dr. Eric H. Chudler; Dept. Anesthesiology, BOX
University of Washington; Seattle, WA 98195-6540
To repeat what others have said, requires education; to challenge
it, requires brains. - Mary Pettibone Poole
I not only use all
the brains that I have, but all that I can borrow.
Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924)
No, indeed; I don't know anything. You see, I am stuffed, so I
have no brains at all. - L. Frank Baum (the "Scarecrow" in The
Wonderful Wizard of Oz)
IQ is not influenced by family size or birth order. There is
some confusion on this matter due to the fact that smart families
usually have few children. However there is absolutely no evidence
to suggest that you will have a low IQ if you belong to a large
family. There is also no evidence that the first born child will
be more intelligent than the rest.
The human brain weighs about 1,300g, the elephant brain about
6,000 g and the cat brain about 30 g.