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Logical reasoning tips

Logical reasoning commonly includes deductive logic, inductive logic and analytical reasoning skills.

Deductive reasoning applies reasoning from the general to the specific whereas inductive reasoning involves creating general rules. With deductive reasoning, valid arguments are true provided that the premises are true, whereas, with inductive reasoning, there is always a certain degree of uncertainty involved.

Analytical reasoning is a form of deductive reasoning that involves categorizing and ordering items, and adhering to a set of rules and conditional statements.

Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning is the ability to apply rules accurately and arrive rationally at conclusions.

Deductive reasoning abilities allow reasoning from the general to specific and helps establish an understanding of cause and effect relationships.

In general, deductive skills help think things through and comprehend rules and conditions.

Example 1

1. Noble gases are stable.

Argon is a noble gas.

Therefore, Argon is stable.

Example 2

2. No reptile has fur.

All lizards are reptiles.

Therefore, no lizard has fur.

Get deductive reasoning tips here.

Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning is the ability to discover relationships in data in order to create rules.

Inductive logic makes divergent thinkers and has proven to be very successful in modern society; it can be even more effective when combined with insight and self-awareness.

It is important to realize that there isn't necessarily a logical relationships between observations and generalized conclusions; the strength of the arguments depends on the case.

Example 1

After discovering tints in lighter colors, Dan concluded that he shouldn't mix colors with white clothes.

Example 2

Premise: All the cats I have seen are striped.

Conclusion: Therefore all cats are striped.

There is more formal logic in this example, however it is a weak argument and the conclusion is obviously wrong.

Example 3

Conclusion: All the cats I have seen are striped. Therefore all cats have striped parents.

This argument could be considered stronger and more credible:

Applications of inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning is useful in environments where facts and information are constantly analyzed.

Inductive reasoning allows divergent approaches; it assists in brainstorming, formulating theories, and promotes scientific innovation.

As a measure of abstract thinking, inductive reasoning allows flexibility and helps detect patterns and consistencies in facts and data. It helps gain familiarity with electronics and menu-driven interfaces due to adeptness in figuring out the designers' grouping and classification methods.

Get inductive reasoning tips here.

Analytical reasoning

Analytical reasoning is essential when determining relationships in data sets.

The benefits of strong analytical reasoning skills are manifold:

  • Deconstruction of information (both qualitative and quantitative).
  • Simplification of information (both qualitative and quantitative).
  • Category formation.
  • Pattern recognition.
  • Clarification of facts.

AR and deduction

  • Analytical reasoning involves a variety of deductive reasoning skills that can be assessed without any specialized knowledge.
  • AR skills help infer true statements from explicitly and implicitly stated rules and facts.
  • Deductive skills are needed to recognize logically equivalent statements and to avoid making unjustified assumptions.

Ordering and grouping

  • Ordering and grouping are essential elements in deconstructing information and determining what could or must be true.
  • In mixed relationships (both ordering and grouping), it is important to identify the correct rules for each setup.

The importance of analytical reasoning skills

Analytical skills are involved in of a host of distinct logical reasoning skills, such as deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. As such, analytical skills are important in managerial and other decision-making positions. Critical thinking is also heavily reliant upon analytical skills for data interpretation and the rational adoption of decisions.

Get analytical reasoning tips here.