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Cognitive abilities

Logical reasoning tips

Logic theme found on tests of academic achievement include deductive, inductive, and analytical reasoning:

  • Syllogism (deductive reasoning)
  • Shape sequences (inductive reasoning)
  • Ordering (analytical reasoning)
  • Grouping (analytical reasoning)

Deductive reasoning

Syllogism

  • Cases - Common syllogictic arguments listing all immediate inferences and valid conclusions.
  • Rules - Categorical fallacies and rules to consider when assesing the validity of an argument.
  • Valid arguments - A list of the twenty four valid syllogism arguments.
  • Distribution of terms - Concepts surrounding terms distributed in the premises and conclusion.
  • Merging concept - Merging conclusions.
  • Possibility - Exploring possibilities about valid conclusions.
  • Examples - Two premises and multiple premise worked examples.


Inductive reasoning

  • Shapes - Figure out which shape comes next in the sequence.

Analytical reasoning

  • Diagrams - Strategically placed notes and notations simplify passages.
  • Deductions - Information implicit in statements form valuable deductions.
  • Equivalent rules - Stating a rule diffently is one of the fastest ways to make a deduction.
  • Repeats - Elements that appear in more than one rule.
  • Setups - Ordering, grouping and mixed setups.
  • Keywords - Words that highlight important relationships between elements.
  • Outside knowledge - Knowledge that doesn't originate in the passage should be avoided.
  • Scenarios - If grouping setups can be reduced to two or three cases then scenarios may be worthwhile.